朱德在长汀留下的历史印迹

老葡京娱乐

□黄启源

7b0c4597f1994e62a47a6ff3adc96207

一位农民的儿子朱德是一位着名的军队将军。为了寻求拯救国家的真相,他逐渐成为无产阶级革命和军事战略家。他从南昌起义迁到井冈山团圆,然后搬到了西长汀。朱茂红离开长汀。许多革命事迹和革命成就的杰出成就。朱德所称的张婷“是中国革命史上的一个转折点。”

7a1ae173b54945c0b8314dc07bb86575

朱德在红军时期

张婷是朱茂红军发展的重要立足点。 8月1日南昌起义后,朱德跟随起义军一直穿越长汀,自1929年以来,已有3600多名朱茂红从井冈山出发,寻找新的革命根据地。从此,张婷给朱德的革命生涯留下了深刻的印象。

长汀市的解放

改编红四军

1929年1月14日,朱德和毛泽东率领红军3600多人下井至井冈山。他们以红四军指挥官和党代表毛泽东《红军第四军司令部布告》的名义被释放,以宣传红军的革命目的,军事纪律以及中国共产党的相关政治和经济方面。而国家的政策,呼吁工农“用权力下来”,“用军阀打倒”,“统一中国人”,“夺取政权”。

3月12日,朱德和毛泽东率领红四军3000多人抵达长汀县四都镇。那天晚上,驻扎在长汀的郭凤鸣派出一个补充小组前往四个首都,对红军进行偷袭,并受到红军的强烈抵制。

13日,朱德命令特种行动指挥官毕战云猛烈追捕红军敌人。整个营的战士都在追赶并猛烈抨击,并且在胜华山脚下的偷袭被命令停止。敌人瘫倒在长岭村,并在执勤。朱德率领红四军和主力军抵达屯溪,毛泽东听取了郭凤鸣军队的情况和长汀县的革命形势,以及长汀县委的负责人。中国,并决定进入长汀县的南障碍。长岭村追逐敌人,然后抓住长汀。

14日,朱德和毛泽东命令红四军对长岭村发动攻击,并命令第28和第31团成为主攻。在特工阵营返回敌人后,他们占领了长岭村以北的武术岭。切断敌人的撤退。早上8点,战斗开始了。第28组和第31组迅速攀升至主峰并率先控制了有利的地形。当敌人上山时,他们遭到了红军的攻击。经过半天的激烈战斗,两千多名敌人,杀死了郭凤鸣,缴获了500多支步枪,三枚迫击炮,100多发炮弹,多架机枪,以胜利攻占长汀城,并抓获了新的缝纫机。军工厂和两个军火库。这是红四军第一次第一次进入这支队伍。它揭开了在福建西部创建革命根据地的序幕。

15日,在长汀县汀江河岸的南寨广场举行了群众大会。朱德呼吁穷人组织并无情地与地主和封建统治者作斗争。会后,红军将郭凤鸣等反动人员的食物和财产当场分发给了穷人。

20日,朱德出席了在Xinting县Xinting县举行的前红军前中共委员会扩大会议,讨论并确定了红四军的行动计划。会谈结束后,毛泽东致函福建省委,并转交中央委员会报告说“前敌委员会决定了第四军,第五军,以及第二,四届青年联盟的行动。江西红军:采取游击战术,动员群众宣传苏维埃,分裂政权相互联系,分裂地区与湘赣边界分离地区相连。“

In order to facilitate the guerrilla warfare, Zhu De and Mao Zedong decided to reorganize the Red Fourth Army in Changting and established the Political Department of the Red Fourth Army. The original army, regiment, battalion, company, platoon, and class were changed to military, column, and detachment. The formation of the brigade and the detachment. The whole army was compiled into three columns: the former 28th group was the first column, the column leader Lin Biao, the party representative Chen Yi; the former 28th group and the special agent camp were combined into the second column, the column leader Hu Shaohai, Party representative Tan Zhenlin; the former 31st group was compiled as the third column, column leader Wu Zhonghao, party representative Cai Xiemin. Each column has two units equivalent to the battalion, and each detachment has three detached battalions. Each column has about 1,200 people and more than 500 guns. Zhu De is still the commander, Mao Zedong is still the party representative and the director of the political department, and Tan Zhenlin is also the deputy director of the political department.

4c653fc2b0d7482daa00139698639ada

In 1929, the first set of uniforms of the Red Army produced by Changting

Zhu De met with Fu Lianzhen, the president of Changting Gospel Hospital, and adopted Fu Lianzhen's suggestion to inoculate vaccinia to each Red Army soldier to prevent smallpox. Zhu De also personally reviewed the prisoners, demobilized most of the opium and oil, and mobilized and absorbed more than 1,000 young farmers to participate in the Red Army and helped build the peasant Red Guard.

On March 27, Zhu De issued the first division of the Kuomintang army Zhang Wei, the name of the Red Army commander and the party representative Mao Zedong,《敬告士兵群众书》, stating that the Red Army is the "swearing for the interests of workers and peasants" led by the Communist Party of China. The army that was completely liberated, this time came to Fujian (Changting) to help the poor workers and peasants carry out the agrarian revolution. "You are the oppressed poor people with the workers and peasants, the Kuomintang, the warlords, the vast landlords, and you are common. enemy". In order to liberate the workers and peasants, and to liberate you, we specifically call on you to carry out the mutiny, participate in the agrarian revolution, and divide the land.

xx3月下旬,朱德和毛泽东帮助长汀党组织党员秘密发展,组建了20个秘密农会,5个秘密工会和总工会。在此基础上,召集各界代表选举长汀县革命委员会。该委员会由来自地方党代表,红军代表和人民代表的21名成员组成。在军队,土地,财政,宣传,家政和妇女六部委之下,作为贫穷农民的邱超是革命委员会的主任。居民委员会居民位于前商会 - 云霄阁的所在地。

在长汀期间,朱德下令在长春军工厂生产4000多件军服,并配备新的缝纫机。服饰有灰色,红色领,列宁,红色五星军帽,灰色布料紧身裤,以及每个指挥官套装。红四军每次使用也支付4元,军官,士兵和俘虏得到平等对待。红四军队长肖在他的记忆中说:“我第一次去汀州,最令人印象深刻的是2件事:每人送4元费,每人送一件新制服,大家都穿新衣,好精神!“

1937年,当朱德在延安与美国作家斯梅德利交谈时,他指出了这段历史的重要性:红军的行动最初是为了避免主导敌军的数量而进入福建,并且没有计划取胜它。婷。但是,由于长岭寨在第一场战斗中击败了郭凤鸣,“长汀取得了意想不到的胜利,这是革命发展的转折点。” “张婷真的成了中国革命史上的一个转折点。”0x9A8B]文章中指出:关于张婷的许多场景都刻在朱德的记忆中.在被查获的武器中,有两千支步枪和数十挺机枪是全新的日本制造。但最重要的是工厂有一台新的缝纫机(日货)。当朱将军提到这些缝纫机时,他甚至有很多声音。朱将军说:“这些机器对我们来说非常重要,因为在此之前,我们所有的衣服都是手工缝制的。但现在我们终于有了第一支常规红军制服。新制服的颜色是灰色的。蓝色,每个都有一双紧身裤和一个带红色星星的军帽。它不像外国军装那么漂亮,但对我们来说,真的很棒。“

在长汀期间,朱德和毛泽东不仅率领红四军首次进入长岭村,解放了长汀市,建立了长汀县革命委员会,改编了红四军,统一了红军制服等。更令人欣慰的是,这位43岁的朱德再次收获了爱情并与康克庆结婚。

4月1日,朱德和毛泽东带领红四军离开长汀,经古城迁往瑞金,与彭德怀和滕代远领导的红五军会面。

f6c813bdebeb41ea97a974ece7bd3d9e

1929年3月,朱德和康克庆在长汀县结婚。图为抗日战争时期的朱德和康克清

参加汀州会议

重组红军军团

1930年6月上半月,朱德和毛泽东率领红四军从江西到吴,并第三次进入该市。他们通过武平和上杭进入长汀。

6月中旬,朱德出席了前红军第四委员会和皖西特别委员会的联席会议,该委员会首先迁至长汀县南阳(今上杭县)的汀州市,并称为“汀州会议”。会议总结了滇西基地区土地革命斗争的经验,进一步完善了土地革命政策,对滇西地区的土地,婚姻,经济,财政政策进行了重要补充和修订。在云南西部等地区制造政治和军事问题。毛泽东审议的两项决议《伟大的道路》和《流氓问题》通过了一些新的重要决定。

会议期间,中央特别专员屠振农传达了全国红军代表大会和国家苏维埃区域会议的精神。一般路线是攻占武汉,首先在漳州和吉安作战,然后攻占南昌和九江,并切断长江;不要拼搏,“放松大敌,放弃大城市”,犯了“新右翼”和“逃亡”的错误,使红四军发展成长江流域。朱德和毛泽东对红军攻击大城市的新战略表示怀疑和反对,认为红军装备薄弱,但大多数人表示接受中央方向。 “除了接受别无选择。”会议改变了原计划,“采取集中攻击战略”,并决定军队将于7月10日集中在兴国,然后攻击吉安。

cc752df2aac44d7ab9afb046d6478447

根据中央政府的指示,联合会议决定将红四军,红六军和红十二军重组为中国工农红军第一军(后改名为红军第一军)军队),朱德军担任总司令,毛泽东担任政委。全军近3万人。与此同时,毛泽东,朱德等前红军第一军团前敌委员,毛泽东担任前党委书记;还成立了毛泽东主席,朱德,曾山等中国革命军事委员会成员,统一指挥红军的军事行动和政权建设工作。军事重组被称为“汀州重组”。

6月22日,朱德以工人和农民红军第一军总司令和青州政委毛泽东的名义发布命令,强调“公路军有合作任务”。与江西工农共同抓住九江和南昌建立江西政权。“ 7月5日之前,全公路军前往广昌集中精力。在部队出发前,来自汀州的三四千人向长汀县南郊的红军北方告别。朱德和毛泽东在会上发表讲话,指出中国革命的任务是打败帝国主义,推翻国民党政府,摧毁地主阶级等等。反革命。

军事革命委员会的比率转移到长汀

指挥行动

1932年1月9日,红军袭击了漳州,很快就输了。 3月27日至28日,朱德出席了瑞金中央局,讨论了红军的方向。会议通过了毛泽东关于中路军向东发展,攻击龙岩,消灭张掖军阀等军阀,并将中路军改名为东路军的建议。决定毛泽东带领东路军攻击龙岩,向东南发展。

4月10日,朱德和王家祥带领中央军委迁至长汀,并会见了4月1日抵达长汀的周恩来,直接指示红十四军清理皖西南地区的残骸。清理敌人的占领。指出巩固苏区并支持红军的主力军。

074771a402a14b1cacac33a2eba6d8ec

12日,朱德以中央革命军事委员会主席的名义发布命令,决定将第一和第五军团转移到战斗中去。主要任务是消灭西部的敌人张西的主要敌人,并打败入侵苏联地区的敌人。从本月13日开始,对位于福建枢纽西部的长汀实施戒严。驻扎在长汀市的武装部队在中央军委营长和政委的指挥下统一,执行了戒严。这也要求当地军队在当前革命战争的蓬勃发展中,向敌人派出深远而积极的活动,并与红军合作进行战斗; “当任何军队将来接近红军的基本军团时,必须听取军团上级指挥官的统一指挥,没有任何借口。不是在他的指挥或自由行动之下。”

4月20日,红军东路军攻占漳州,用约四个团歼灭了敌人的张掖部,抓获了1200名副官长,并缴获了两架飞机等大型军用物资,并筹集了100万元银币。

当时,国民党军队中有许多开悟的士兵将枪拖向红军。朱德看到了这种情况,既高兴又担心。他与彭德怀和王家祥签署了一项总命令,指出根据最近的消息,蒋介石是在“七政三军”的口号下,我想利用这一点发送反动分子伪装士兵跑到前线,或作为当地的短期工人,或欺骗苏联地区的宣传,并调查军事情况,企图鼓励红军反对水并削弱了红军。为了防止这种阴谋,所有来到军队和地方武装部队的国民党士兵都应该被调到红军总政治部接受审查。他们不应该未经授权留在军队中。朱德还签署了一项总规则,指出在军事紧张时期,为了收集各种信息,有可能检查从白区发往苏区的邮件,但经过检查,必须是密封并密封并由邮局运送到目的地;没有权利扣留包裹,报纸等。

The Fujian Military Region was established in Tingzhou on February 20, 1932. The resident is located in Lai Zhai, Shifu Village, Datong Town. Commander Luo Binghui, followed by Ye Jianying, Long Tengyun, political commissar Tan Zhenlin, Hou Wanyongcheng. Has established the Hang, Yong, Yanjun Division (also known as the First Military Division), Commander Guo Qingyi; Ting, Qing, Lianjun Division (also known as the Second Army Division), Commander Huang Mars; Ning, Qing, Guijun Division (also known as the Third Army Division), Commander Wu Xiuquan. The military region has a headquarters and a political department. There are organization department, propaganda department and health department. According to Mao Zedong's efforts to train the cadre of the army, the main force of the Red Army was used to consolidate the instructions of the struggle in the base area. Under the direct leadership of the commander Luo Binghui and the political commissar Tan Zhenlin, the Fujian Military Region established a camp school in Shifu Village, Datong Town, the suburb of Changting County. Mainly cultivate local armed cadres, they have played a key role in the distribution of troops or places.

In late May, Zhu De gave a military class to the Eastern Road Military Training Team held in Changting. Zhu De used the anti-"encirclement and suppression" campaign and the easy-to-understand metaphor to explain in a simple way the "enemy and me retreat, the enemy stationed in my disturbance, the enemy was tired, I hit the enemy and chased me", and said: " With this method, you can become passive and take the initiative, and take the enemy's nose and let him have no way to deal with it." Zhu De also used his own several times at a critical juncture, how to dress up the escape experience, with special emphasis on learning to dress up and catching prisoners. Point out: to do reconnaissance work to be smart, to pretend to be like a beggar, to be brave and clever to deal with all kinds of complicated situations; to a new place, to quickly understand the customs and customs there. Otherwise, your costume will be unveiled. If you are caught by the enemy, you have to find a way to run away. If you are caught by the enemy, you should never talk about the internal affairs of the Red Army when the enemy interrogates. Zhu De explained the shooting knowledge in a plain and easy-to-understand language. He asked the trainees to make the gun's center of gravity, the ruler and the aiming target three points and one line. It is understood that the ballistics is a parabola and the target distance should be mastered.

When talking about his relationship with Mao Zedong, Zhu De said with joy: People say "Zhu Mao", in fact, "Zhu Mao" should put Mao Zedong's name in front and my name in the back. ●

xx(来自《富农问题》)